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A History of the Months and the

Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar (hence the Julian calendar) in 46 BC. In the process, he renamed this month after himself. name=August>

April — Aphrodites monthOld EnglishApril(is)

Januarius had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long. name=February>

Maia (meaning the great one) is the Italic goddess of spring, the daughter of Faunus, and wife of Vulcan. name=June>

February — month of FebruaMiddle EnglishFebruarius

January — Januss monthMiddle EnglishJanuarie

Octoberhas always had 31 days. name=November>

William Matthew ONeil,Time and the Calendars, Sydney University Press, 1975See AlsoTheRoyal Greenwich Observatoryprovides information ontime, thecalendar, thedate of Easter, theequation of time,leap years, and the year2000 AD.

June — Junos monthMiddle Englishjun(e)

TheUnited States Naval Observatoryhas severalsystems of time.Lawrence A. Crowl,.edu, 27 September 1995

March — Mars monthMiddle EnglishMarch(e)

See AlsoA History of the MonthsThe original Roman year had 10 named monthsMartiusMarch,AprilisApril,MaiusMay,JuniusJune,QuintilisJuly,SextilisAugust,SeptemberSeptember,OctoberOctober,NovemberNovember,DecemberDecember, and probably two unnamed months in the dead of winter when not much happened in agriculture. The year began withMartiusMarch. Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome circa 700 BC, added the two monthsJanuariusJanuary andFebruariusFebruary. He also moved the beginning of the year fromMariustoJanuariusand changed the number of days in several months to be odd, a lucky number. AfterFebruariusthere was occasionally an additional month ofIntercalarisintercalendar. This is the origin of the leap-year day being in February. In 46 BC, Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar (hence the Julian calendar) changing the number of days in many months and removingIntercalaris. name=January>

Intercalaris — inter-calendar month

William Morris, editor,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1976

Mars is the Roman god of war. He is identified with the Greek godAres. name=April>

LatinAugustus mensismonth of Augustus

October — the eighth monthMiddle Englishoctobre

March was the original beginning of the year, and the time for the resumption of war.

July — Julius Caesars monthMiddle EnglishJulie

LatinJanu(s)Janus + -ariusary (pertaining to)

Juniushad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.

Aprilishad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.

Janus is the Roman god of gates and doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions. His festival month is January.

Juno is the principle goddess of the Roman Pantheon. She is the goddess of marriage and the well-being of women. She is the wife and sister of Jupiter. She is identified with the Greek goddessHera. name=July>

Februa is the Roman festival of purification, held on February fifteenth. It is possibly of Sabine origin. name=Intercalaris>

Latindies februatusday of purification

Aphroditeis the Greek goddess of love and beauty. She is identified with the Roman goddess Venus. name=May>

LatinMarti(s)Mars + -us(adj. suffix)

Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Portland House, New York, 1989

September — the seventh monthMiddle Englishseptembre

Novembrishad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long. name=December>

Sextilishad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long.

Quintilis(and laterJulius) has always had 31 days.

Intercalarishad 27 days until the month was abolished by Julius. name=March>

Septemberhad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long. name=October>

Februariushad 28 days, until circa 450 BC when it had 23 or 24 days on some of every second year, until Julius when it had 29 days on every fourth year and 28 days otherwise.

Augustus Caesar clarified and completed the calendar reform of Julius Caesar. In the process, he also renamed this month after himself. name=September>

LatinFebrua(s)Februa + -ariusary (pertaining to)

December — the tenth monthMiddle Englishdecembre

August — Augustus Caesars monthLatinAugustusAugustus

Intercalaris — inter-calendar monthLatinIntercalarisinter-calendar

November — the nineth monthMiddle EnglishNovembre

Decemberhad 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long.SourcesThese sources are somewhat inconsistent. I have chosen interpretations that are predominate among sources or that seem most reasonable.

LatinFebruarius mensismonth of Februa

May — Maias monthOld FrenchMai

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