Friday, July 16, 2021


Pnynis used in Mainland China. It marks tone with a numeral after the syllable.

Cantonese, like all other Chinese languages, is predominantly anisolating, or analytic, language, meaning that for the most part, words have only one grammatical form. Grammatical functions are expressed through word order, particles, prepositions, and discourse, rather than by suffixes attached to nouns or verbs, such as in Indo-European languages. Because of the lack ofinflections, Chinese grammar may appear quite simple as compared to that ofIndo-Europeanlanguages.

Serbian (cpc je, srpski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbo-Croatian, defined as…

The nasal consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ are syllable forming, e.g.,

English has borrowed a number of words from Cantonese. Below are a few of them.

Since Raymond Chui said that Cantonese is not a language but it is a dialect, so I am wondering what a language meant to him.

Cantonese can be written in two different versions:

from the Amoy dialect. The Portuguese form

Cantonese is thede factoofficial spoken variety of Chinese along with English. It is the language of choice for education, business, government, and the media. For instance, Hong Kongs important and popular film industry is in Cantonese. It is too early to predict the effects of unification on the status of Cantonese in Hong Kong and Macau.

Guangdong & Guangdonghua. there is ng after the a in Guang & ng after the o in dong in Guangdong (-sheng[should be attached to Guanddong for people to know it is what you are talking about], sheng is a word rarely used on maps in China, and means province) In Chinese, there is a very important difference in pronouncing a word ending in n vs. ng. There are no sound ending in ng in Mandarin* but there are those dialects like Cantonese, Fujianese, etc where a difference in n vs ng would produce a joke or embarrassment. Please be consistent in your spelling especially those syllables in Chinese like guan vs guang /.

Please elucidate what your question means?

Tenses are not marked grammatically, rather they are indicated by adverbs of time, e.g., yesterday, today, now.

According to one analysis, Cantonese has 18 consonant phonemes which are given below. Cantonese does not have a contrast between voiceless and voiced consonants such as between /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-g/, /ts-dz/. Instead, there is a contrast between voiceless plain (unaspirated) and voiceless aspirated consonants, e.g., /p-pʰ/, /t-tʰ/, /k-kʰ/, /ts-tsʰ/. Only /p/, /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ can appear at the end of syllables

tooth as compared to Mandarin

Just a guess on my part. Cantonese has more tones and sounds more melodious than Mandarin to some people.

Thank you for pointing out the typos.

Egyptian Arabic, also known as Egyptian Spoken Arabic, Masri, Massry, Normal Egyptian Arabic and Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, is a variety of Arabic which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language…

/ŋ/ can appear at the beginning of syllables, e.g.,

Chinese secret society, from Cantonese

Cantonese nouns requireclassifierswhen counted. Hence one must say two [head] cow, not two cows. Each noun has one classifier. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of classifiers that must be memorized for various classes of nouns, e.g., round objects, flat objects, book-like objects, animate beings, etc.

Cantonese and Mandarin are about as similar as French and English. In my understanding, a dialect is a subset of a language that developed because of geographic isolation, which shares an origin, a grammar, and is generally mutually intelligible with its parent language. Cantonese and Mandarin apparently share none of these. Cantonese and Mandarin each have their own dialects!

*There are words ending in ng in Mandarin words but only seen as attached to the preceding vowel vs being used alone, as in Cantonese, Fujianese, etc You will soon notice this if you have used bopomofo or in Taiwan.

Cantonese is both a dialect and a language. It follows some rules of mandarin yet it has its own system in other ways.

Yhnyhn sang y jh jihyuh, hi jynyihm thng kyhnlih seuhng ytleuht pihngdng. Kuihdeih fuyuh lising thng luhngsm, thngmaih ynggi yh hngdaih gwanhaih ge jngshn wuhsung deuidoih.

Every syllable in Cantonese has a pitch that is an integral part of the pronunciation of that syllable. Pitch distinguishes one syllable from another. Standard Cantonese has six (seven in some analyses) distinct tones: three level and three contour. A level tone is one which remains at approximately the same even pitch over the course of a syllable or a word, while a contour tone is one which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of a syllable or a word.

Cantonese is considered to be a conservative dialect, its sound system having preserved the final consonants and tones of theTang Dynastyliterary standard.

Like Mandarin, Cantonese is a topic-prominent language. This means that the topic of the sentence (defined as old or known information) precedes new or added information. In Cantonese, direct objects precede indirect objects, and certain adverbs precede verbs, while the opposite is true in Mandarin.

Rnrn shng r zyu, zi znyn h qunl shng yl pngdĕng. Tmen fyŏu lĭxng he lingxn, bing yng yĭng yĭ xingd gunx de jngshn hxing dudi.

Foreign language learning is real world education

Mandarin, Cantonese, etc. are dialects. There are many dialects in China.

Standard Cantonese, also known asGuăngdng dialect, refers to the most prestigious dialect spoken inGuăngzhu(Canton),Hong Kong, andMacau.There are numerous other dialects of Cantonese, such as Bobai, Cangwu, Gaolei (Gaoyang), Guangzhou, Guinan, Ping, Qinlian, Siyi (Hoisan, Schleiyip, Seiyap, Taishan, Toisan), Tengxian, Yangjiang, Zhongshan (Ethnologue).

Cantonese is not a language, it is the same as Chinese language.

a formal version that can be easily understood by Mandarin speakers but that does not accurately represent the spoken language;

«A language is a dialect with an army and a navy.» This is about politics, not linguistics. Why should Danish, Swedish and Norwegian otherwise be considered distinct languages, given that they are mutually intelligible?

Pnynmarks tones with numbers corresponding to the tones.

All dialects are languages. Dialect simply means a variety of a language, e.g., both Mandarin and Cantonese are dialects of of a language we call Chinese.

Sometimes you cant for all the reasons mentioned.

Aspect is marked by particles that indicate completion of an action or change of state.

Number and gender are not marked grammatically, except in pronouns and polysyllabic nouns referring to people. Otherwise, they are understood through context.

Click on theMLA Interactive Language Mapto find out where Chinese (all dialects) is spoken in the United States.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Below are the numbers 0-10 in Cantonese (in comparison to Mandarin).

I dont think the term dialect does it justice. Sure you have common a written language, but the spoken words are completely different between Cantonese and Mandarin. One could argue that Toisanese might be a dialect of Cantonese or visa versa as they share a lot of words and sounds, but there are very few shared words between Cantonese and Mandarin.

Syllables in Cantonese consist of an Optional Initial Consonant + Vowel (accompanied by tone) + Optional Final Consonant (/n/, /ŋ/, /m/, /p/, /t/, /k/). In contrast, Mandarin allows only /n/ and /ŋ/ in final position.

Yale Romanization, or Yale Cantonese, widely used in books and dictionaries for Standard Cantonese, especially for language learners, uses diacritics and the letter

Yale Romanization, or Yale Cantonese, is still widely used in books and dictionaries for Standard Cantonese, especially for language learners in the U.S. It marks tones with diacritics.

/ʔ/ = sound between the sullables in

The vowel inventory of Cantonese is a matter of some debate among linguists, with the number of phonemes (sounds that distinguish word meaning) differing, depending on the analysis. All vowels are long in final position. The table below shows 7 vowel phonemes.

You just opened a can of worms. Language vs. dialect is a discussion that can be likened to walking over a mine field. Personally, I prefer the term variety which is less loaded. For a nice discussion see an interesting article at

, or directly fromAmoydialect of Chinese

Peoples Republic of China (PRC)

Cantonese shares most of its vocabulary with Mandarin and other Chinese varieties, but the number of English loanwords in Cantonese, especially in Hong Kong, is much greater than that in Mandarin.

There are several competing systems for writing Cantonese with the Latin alphabet. They differ mostly in the representation of vowels and tones.

Choose a language family/branchAfro-Asiatic Language FamilyBerber BranchChadic BranchCushitic BranchSemitic BranchAlgonquian (Algic) Language FamilyAltaic Language FamilyMongolian LanguagesTungusic LanguagesTurkic BranchAustro-Asiatic Language FamilyAustronesian Language FamilyCaucasian Language FamiliesConstructed LanguagesCreole LanguagesDravidian Language FamilyEskimo-Aleut Language FamilyIndigenous Languages of AustraliaIndigenous Languages of South AmericaIndo-European Language FamilyBaltic BranchCeltic BranchGermanic BranchIndo-Aryan BranchIndo-Iranian BranchRomance BranchSlavic BranchIroquoian Language FamilyKhoisan (Khoesan) Language FamilyLanguage IsolatesMayan Language FamilyNa-Dene (Athabaskan) Language FamilyNiger-Congo Language FamilyNilo-Saharan Language FamilyOto-Manguean Language StockPidgin LanguagesSino-Tibetan Language FamilyChinese BranchTibeto-Burmese BranchSiouan Language FamilyTai-Kadai Language FamilyUralic Language FamilyUto-Aztecan Language Family

How difficult is it to learn Cantonese?

What I meant is that, how can you distinguish between a language and a dialect?

Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. It is closely related to Zulu, Swati, and Ndebele. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to…

There are several ways to mark tones in Cantonese.

. The distribution of the different form of the word reflects the spread of the beverage. The modern English form

means five (compare to Mandarin

Take a look at Article 1 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rightsin Cantonese inYale Romanization. For the sake of comparison, the same text in Mandarin is also given. Although the characters are the same, they are pronounced quite differently in the two dialects.

Its said by some people that Cantonese pronounciation sounds more similar to the ancient Han Chinese (back to Tang & Song Dynasty) than the modern Mandarin does. Poems from famous ancient poets like Li Bai and Du Fu when read in Cantonese sound very melodious. Not too sure about this though.

TheInternational Phonetic Alphabet(IPA) uses symbols that represent tones. They look like this: ˥ ˦ ˧.

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The Yu dialects, also known as Cantonese (Guăngdnghu), are one of the major dialect groups of China. They are spoken by 52 million people in the province ofGuăngdng and in the city ofGuăngzhu(Canton), as well as inHong KongMacau, and in expatriate Chinese communities and Chinatowns in Southeast Asia, Europe, and the United States. The total number of Cantonese speakers is estimated at 62 million people  (Ethnologue)*. The origins of Cantonese are not known due to absence of reliable historical records, however, it is generally agreed that it had developed linguistics traits that distinguished it from other Chinese dialects by the time of theTang Dynasty(618-907 AD).

In PRC, Cantonese is spoken along withMandarin. The latter is used as the medium of education and government administration. Because of PRCs language policies, most people in China today are proficient in Mandarin. As a consequence, Cantonese-Mandarin bilingualism is increasing in Cantonese-speaking provinces of the country. However, Cantonese continues to be the language of everyday communication both inside and outside of the home. It is also used in electronic and print media.

a colloquial version that is relatively incomprehensible to speakers of Mandarin but is close to spoken Cantonese. It is written in a mixture of standard Chinese characters and hundreds of extra characters specifically adapted to represent spoken Cantonese.

The first written documents in Cantonese date back to the 19th century. Today, written Cantonese is used mainly in personal correspondence, popular newspapers and magazines, and in fiction. Mandarin is used for all formal and official purposes.


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