Chinese

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Rnrn shng r zyu, zi znyn h qunl shng yl pngdng. Tmen fyu lxng h lingxn, bng yng y xingd gunx de jngshn hxing dudi.

(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Xiang( [] xingy)

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A distinction is made in Chinese between spoken and written language. In China the written form of Chinese, which is perceived as being uniform throughout the country is referred to as (zhngwn), while the terms [] (y) or [] (hu) are used in the names of spoken varities of Chinese, e.g. Mandarin Chinese is known as [] (hny) = Han language, or [] (ptnghu) = common language in China. elsewhere it is refered to as [] (guy) = national language or [] (huy) = Chinese language. The word [] (hn) is used to refer to the Chinese people and comes from the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD).

Varieties of spoken Chinese are traditional grouped into the following major groups:

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Chinese belongs to the Sinitic or Chinese branch of Sino-Tibetan language family. The modern varieties of Chinese all descended from Middle Chinese ( []), which was spoken in China during Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (c. 5th – 12th centuries AD), and which developed from Old Chinese ( []), which was spoken during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and the Warring States Period (c. 1600-256 BC).

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Translated by theMagistri Classical Chinese Tutor

Chinese is spoken by about 1.3 billion people mainly in the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (a.k.a. Taiwan), Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia. There are also communities of Chinese speakers in many other parts of the world.

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Min( [] bn-g / mng-ng)

Wu( [] ng

Gan( [] gny)

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Guan / Mandarin( [] gunhu)

Akkadian CuneiformAncient Egyptian (Demotic)Ancient Egyptian (Hieratic)Ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphs)ChineseCh-nmCuneiformJapaneseJurchenKhitanLinear BLuwianMayanNaxiSumerian CuneiformTangut (Hsihsia)

The different varieties of Chinese are known as (fngyn), which is translated as regional languages, toplects, dialects or varieties. The English term dialect normally refers to mutually intelligible varieties of a single language, though the distinction between dialects and languages is often for sociological and political reasons rather than linguistic ones. Chinese people generally refer to Chinese as a single language with a number of different dialects or varieties. However there is little mutual intelligiblity between the different varieties of Chinese and as a result some non-Chinese linguists refer to them as separate languages.

Hakka( [] hak

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Rn rn shng zhjn yu qun fyu zh qng rnb wi rn d

Akkadian CuneiformAncient Egyptian (Demotic)Ancient Egyptian (Hieratic)Ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphs)ChineseCh-nmCuneiformJapaneseJurchenKhitanLinear BLuwianMayanNaxiSumerian CuneiformTangut (Hsihsia)

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Yue( [] yuhtyh)

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The main written form of Chinese is based mainly on the Mandarin spoken by educated people in Beijing.

Chinese is written with characters ( [] hnz) which represent both sound and meaning. Words in Chinese can be made up of one of more syllables and each syllable is represented by a single character. There are relatively few different types of syllable in spoken Chinese – about 1,700 in Mandairn, compared to languages like English with over 8,000 – yet there are tens of thousands of characters. As a result there are multiple characters for each syllable, each of which has a different meaning. This type of writing system is known as semanto-phonetic, logophonetic, morphophonemic, logographic or logosyllabic.

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