Yip, Po-Ching; Rimmington, Don (2004).
A second-person pronounnis sometimes used for addressing deities.
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.166169.ISBN0-521-82380-3OCLC70671780.
Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Series IV, Volume 184
The Chinese Language: Its History and Usage
) John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia 1999.ISBN90-272-3690-9, S. 142147; W. A. C. H. Dobson:
University Press, Cambridge 1973.ISBN0-521-20037-7
Used to indicate you and I (two people) only; in all other cases
The first-person pronounsnanduI are infrequently used in Mandarin conversation. They are of dialectal origin. However, their usage is gaining popularity among the young, most notably in online communications.
) differ somewhat from pronouns inEnglishand other Indo-European languages. For instance, there is no differentiation in the spoken language between he, she and it (though a written difference was introduced after contact with the West), and pronouns are not inflected to indicate whether they are the subject or object of a sentence.Mandarin Chinesefurther lacks a distinction between the possessive adjective (my) and possessive pronoun (mine); both are formed by appending theparticle. Somehonorificsexist in the language, but modern Chinese, especially in the spoken language, does not express the differing levels of respect that can be seen inHonorific speech in Japane搜索引擎优化rKorean honorifics.
The distinction between singular and plural are made by the classifier/(g) and(xi), and the following nouns remain the same. Usually inanimate objects are referred using these pronouns rather than the personal pronouns(t) and(tmen). Traditional forms of these pronouns are:(zhge),(zhxi),(nge),(nxi), andtmen.
Articles containing Chinese-language text
he/she/him/her (Taiwan and Hong Kong)
In modern times, the practice of self-deprecatory terms is still used in specific formal situations. Inrsums, the term/(gu; lit.noble) is used for you and your; e.g.,/refers to your company.(bn rn; lit.this person) is used to refer to oneself.
In Taiwanese Minnan the character for your is(pinyin:rn;Pe̍h-e-j:ln); although this would be pronounced the same as the personal pronounln, it is represented by a different character when used as the equivalent ofinStandard Chinese.
In imperial times, the pronoun for I was commonly omitted when speaking politely or to someone with higher social status.I was usually replaced with special pronouns to address specific situations.Examples includegurnduringearly Chinese historyandzhnafter theQin dynastywhen theEmperoris speaking to his subjects. When the subjects speak to the Emperor, they address themselves as(chn), or your official. It was extremely impolite andtabooto address the Emperor as you or to address oneself as I.
can be eitherinclusive or exclusive, depending on the circumstance where it is used.
is used. This form has fallen into disuse outside Beijing, and may be aManchuinfluence.
Matthews, 2010. Language Contact and Chinese. In Hickey, ed.,
To indicatealienable possession,(de) is appended to the pronoun. Forinalienable possession, such as family and entities very close to the owner, this may be omitted, e.g./(w m) my mother. For older generations,(lng) is the equivalent to the modern form(nnde), as in(lngzn) your father. In literary style,(q) is sometimes used for his or her; e.g.means his father or her father.
Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007
Traditional Chinese characters, as influenced by translations from Western languages and the Bible in the nineteenth century, occasionally distinguished gender in pronouns, although that distinction is abandoned insimplified Characters. Those traditional characters developed after Western contact include both masculine and feminine forms of you (and), rarely used today even in writings in traditional characters; in the simplified system,is rare.
In written Chinese, a distinction between masculine human
Early Archaic Chinese. A Descriptive Grammar.
Ancient Chinese reconstructions according toSeptember 27, 2013, at theWayback Machine..
In Cantonese, for possessive,(ge3) is appended to the pronoun. It is used in the same way asin Mandarin.
The traditional characters also included three neuter third-person pronouns after Western contact,(t) for animals,for deities, andfor inanimate objects. However, the distinction of these three characters vary from person to person, yet for some the confusion of three characters might be considered to be offensive. Whereas in simplified characters,is used in place of all three characters .
There are many other pronouns in modern Sinitic languages, such asTaiwanese Minnan(pinyin:nn;Pe̍h-e-j:ln) you andWritten Cantonese(keih deih) they. There exist many more pronouns inClassical Chineseand in literary works, including(r) or(r) for you, and(w) for I (seeChinese honorifics). They are not routinely encountered in colloquial speech.
third person subject pronoun did not exist
(men) inTraditional Chinese characters.
Middle Chinese pronunciations given inBaxters notation.
This page was last edited on 5 January 2018, at 08:15
. London; New York:Routledge. pp.4758.ISBN978-0-415-15031-6OCLC52178249.
(it) [and similarly in the plural] was introduced in the early 20th century under European influence.
The Hakka Dialect. A linguistic study of Its Phonology, Syntax and Lexicon.
This distinction does not exist in the spoken language, where moreover
Attempts to introduce audibly different forms for she (
is restricted to animate reference; inanimate entities are usually referred to with demonstrative pronouns for this and that.
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The specified forms represent only a small selection.
* The character to indicate plurality is
University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1962, S. 112114.
The demonstrative pronouns work the same as in English.
) in the first half of the 20th century were unsuccessful (Kane, p. 107).
.North Clarendon, VT: Tuttle.ISBN0-8048-3853-4OCLC77522617.