Error Type 10: Confusing between /iː/ and /ɪ/
While // is a bit more complex in my opinion, it too gets affected by certain consonants that either succeed or precede it as in [months], where we dont actually have to pronounce [th], or [first thing], where we end up saying [firs thing] as its almost impossible to pronounce the /t/ before [th] etc.
Error Type 12: Confusing between /uː/ and /ʊ/
As a result of this, the students dont link the /m/ with the vowels after it as in [Im eating] [Im off] etc.
Words ending with /d/:hide; food; rude
3-So youre coming to my wedding on Saturday right? No. No??? (surprised)
As I mentioned above, in Mandarin, the syllables or words never end with consonants, except with /n/ or /ŋ/. As a result, Chinese learners either omit (delete) the final consonant or add an extra sound (probably a schwa sound) after it, which makes it very difficult for English speakers to follow.
AnotherIn most Chinese dialects, consonant /m/ never occurs at the end of the syllable/word, so Chinese learners never close their lips at the end of words like [arm] [rhyme] [same] [cam] etc.
These two sounds simply do not exist in Chinese pronunciation. The students can pronounce them quite easily when instructed but they remain difficult to control during a conversation. /ð/, a voiced consonant, is a high frequency sound as it is in words like [the] [this] [that] [these] [those] [there] etc.
Teachers are recommended to focus on the /r/ at the beginning and end of the words and not worry much about the one in the middle. The reason why /r/ is very important in the beginning is that it could change the meaning when changed to /l/. [rice] will become [lice] and [rust] [lust].
Words ending with /b/:bulb; curb; globe
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Since the stress concept is unfamiliar to Chinese learners, they, as most learners of English, have problems understanding the idea of vowels reduction and usingthe schwa sound.
My point is that there is no vowels equivalent to the English /e/ that can stand alone in Chinese pronunciation.
Error Type 7: // and /ð/Error Type 8: /v/
For Chinese, letters (pinyin, the modern Chinese alphabet) should be pronounced as they appear. We all know in English it doesnt work like that. The schwa sound is the most common sound in the English language, the longer the words are, the more likely it is that they will contain one or more schwa sounds.
Words like [shoed] and [should] sound pretty much the same, so do [fool] and [full] or [pool] and [pull].
Teachers need to spend a considerable amount of time with the students to practice these sounds as they affect intelligibility dramatically.
As I already explained in error 10, there are several vowels that Chinese learners are confused about. /e/ and /æ/ is one of the minimal pairs that Chinese students struggle with. They cant hear much different between [bet] and [bat], [set] and [sat] etc.
Now, saying [no] in English in different tones could show the others how I feel but it will always mean NO (unless its sarcasm). Now in Chinese , depending on the changes I make to the pitch while saying [no], the actual meaning of the sound [no] totally changes, so [no] may actually mean [table] or [life] or [pen] or [suitcase].
Teachers need to help the learners drop the nasality when attempting to produce that sound as well as free the sides of the tongue while keeping contact between the tip and the alveolar ridge.
Words ending with /ʒ/:Raj;beige;change
English almost sounds like the flowing water, if that makes any sense to you. Chinese sounds like the turning wheels of a train on the railroad track. So why does Chinese sound so? Well, one of the main reasons is that, in Mandarin, syllables never end withconsonantsexcept /n/ or /ŋ/ (and /r/ in Beijing), while in Cantonese, syllables could end with /n/,/ŋ/, /m/, /k/, /p/ or /t/. The quality of /k/, /p/ and /t/ in Cantonese is different from that in English though.
Although most consonants will be difficult to pronounce at word endings for Chinese, voiced consonants are the most challenging ones. By voiced consonants, I mean the consonants that need vibration at the throat like /b/ /d/ /z/ /g/ /v/ /ʒ/ /dʒ/ and /ð/.
/l/ (medial): fault; rolling; falling; swollen; really
So teachers are advised to choose minimal words with voiced consonants to train the learners ears to distinguish between /e/ and /æ/.
Teachers just need to raise the students awareness of those two sound revealing some common spelling patterns of the two vowels.
In Pinyin (Chinese written in Alphabets), the [e] vowel sounds like the English /ɜ/ + /ə/, imagine the word [work] in [British]. In Pinyin, [ei] sounds exactly like /eɪ/ in English.
Words ending with /g/:morgue; rogue; bag
Error Type 13: Confusing between /æ/ or /e/ for /eɪ/
Remember, the problem is not that they dont have those sounds, but that they dont find much difference between them.
Words ending with /ð/:bathe; writhe; with
As I already mentioned in error 1, pitch or tone is one big factor in changing the meaning of a certain syllable. So while to our ears [deep] and [dip] sound quite different, to Chinese learners ears, they dont. Minimal pairs exercises can be quite helpful and dialogues targeting those two vowels are particularly useful.
Error Type 14: /m/ at the end of the words
In addition to omitting those consonants or adding an extra sound after them, Chinese also de-voice them, which means that the /b/ becomes /p/, the /d/ /t/, the /z/ /s/, the /g/ /k/, the /v/ /f/, the /dʒ/ /tʃ/ and the /ʒ/ /ʃ/.
As for most Asian learners of English, Chinese find consonants clusters extremely challenging as not a single Chinese language allows consonants cluster, so teachers should expect to see plenty of omissions, additions and substitutions occurring in words with [pr] [pl] [tr] [kr] [kl] [fl] [ks] [sk] [st] [ts] combinations.
Error Type 3: Words ending with consonants
Chinese pronunciation comes across a bit choppy. The boundaries between the syllables are more audible (it would be easier to hear the beginning and ending of the Chinese syllables). While in English, it would be harder to recognize the start and end of words and syllables.
Error Type 1 is probably one of the most important source of error for Chinese learners. Teachers MUST do plenty of stress exercises and explain that pitch in Chinese has a different role in English.
Error Type 11: Confusing between /e/ and /æ/
Also, the vowels in most of the conjunctions, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, modals, determiners and articles is very often reduced/changed to a schwa sound. On the other hand, due to stress, some vowels are prolonged (made longer).The schwa sound can be spelled as: [a] [e] [o] [u] and [y].
Another consonant that the Chinese languages dont have. Unlike the voiced and voiceless [th], /v/ is difficult for Chinese learners to correct as they dont seem to be able to hold the upper lip still while bringing their lower lip into contact with the upper teeth.
1-Do you like horror movies? No. (Neutral)
Words ending with /z/:bears; toys; booze
/e/: Fed; met; head; men; Kent; pest
The pitch movement is referred to as tone, and so there are 4 different tones in Chinese pronunciation. Each tone gives a certain meaning to a word. Just to help you to understand this, IMAGINE that the sound [no] is an English word and Chinese word. In English, whether I change my voice pitch or not, the meaning of [no] will never change. [no] will never mean [table] or [life] or [pen] or [suitcase], it will mean [no] as in [negative].
So in both Mandarin and Cantonese, Chinese English learners wouldnt connect the consonants at the end with thevowelsat the beginning of syllables. For example, [hes out], in English it would sound like [he zout], but a Chinese speaker would find that very difficult because pronouncing /z/ at the end of a syllable is very unusual. So if you train the students to say it as [he zout], they will get it.
However, when /l/ occurs at the end, it just sounds like [o] as Chinese learners move their lips forward. Students need to be told to keep their lips back and to focus only on the tongue movement.
/st/: must; rusty; festival; Crystal; pastor; best
Chinese learners should be told that oftentimes the pronunciation of /ð/ changes in the natural spoken English, depending on the sounds after it, notably after /n/ /s/ /z/ /t/ and /d/.
At the end of the word is also important because without it the students couldnt connect the /r/ with vowel-starting words such as [youre on] [were up] etc.
Words ending with /dʒ/:fridge;grudge;wage
Error Type 15: Confusing/oʊ/ for /ɔː/
Since the English /r/ doesnt exist in most Chinese dialects, it is a big problem for most Chinese learners of English who often replace it with /l/ and sometimes /w/.
Depending on the native Chinese dialect of the learners, they could either replace it with /b/ or /w/ sound.
Pitchandstressare two quite distinctive areas in English but not in Chinese. In Chinese pronunciation (Mandarin), there is no such thing as word stress. Pitch, on the other hand, plays a greater role in Chinese than in English. It actually changes the meaning of the word.
/sk/: ask; task; husky; rascal; mascot; risky.
It would be easier to hear the difference between [bed] and [bad] because of the voiced consonants after the vowels. The /æ/ in [bad] is longer than that in [bat] because of the /d/.
2-Are you mad at me because I offered your girlfriend a drink? No (but you ARE actually mad at him for doing that)
/ks/: lacks; Max; spikes; takes; seeks, ticks.
Error Type 5: Vowels reduction & the schwa sound