Ruth Ziolkowski died 21 May 2014, aged 87.18Monique Ziolkowski, Ruths daughter, became CEO and three of her siblings continue to work on the project, as well as three of Moniques nephews.19
Buffalo Chip(legal status undetermined)
. April 21, 2003. Archived fromthe originalon September 28, 2007.
Paul and Donna Muffy Christen ofHuron, South Dakota, in July 2010, announced they were donatingUS$5 million in two installments to an endowment to support the operation of the satellite campus. It holds classes in math, English, and American Indian studies courses for college credit, as well as outreach classes. The memorial foundation has awarded more thanUS$1.2 million in scholarships, with the majority going to Native students within South Dakota.17
Seventy years later, quest to carve Crazy Horse Memorial continuesCBS News, Retrieved April 21, 2017.
Walker, Carson (June 2, 2008).Crazy Horse Memorial turns 60 with no end in sight.
Black Hills War, or Great Sioux War (1876)
Biographical museums in South Dakota
This page was last edited on 8 August 2018, at 23:11
(Paperback ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster.ISBN0-671-55392-5.
After Ziolkowski died in 1982 at age 74, his widowRuth Ziolkowski, took charge of the sculpture, overseeing work on the project as CEO from the 1980s to the 2010s.1314Ruth Ziolkowski decided to focus on the completion of Crazy Horses face first, instead of the horse as her husband had originally planned.13She believed that Crazy Horses face, once completed, would increase the sculptures draw as a tourist attraction, which would provide additional funding.13She also oversaw the staff, which included seven of her children.14
Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages
U.S.P.S. (December 21, 1985).Postal Bulletin: Great Americans Issue (19801999).
Griffith, Tom (2014-05-23).Ruth Ziolkowski of Crazy Horse Memorial mourned.
Wind Cave National Parkwithbison herd
SculptorsGutzon BorglumandLincoln Borglum
Soderlin, Barbara.Progress quiets Crazy Horse doubts.
Black HillsofSouth DakotaandWyoming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roberts, Chris (September 2001).Russell Means, in Memoriam.
Elaine Quiver, a descendant of one of Crazy Horses aunts,21said in 2003 that the elder Standing Bear should not have independently petitioned Ziolkowski to create the memorial, because Lakota culture dictates consensus from family members for such a decision, which was not obtained before the first rock was dynamited in 1948.22She said:
Seth Big Crow, whose great-grandmother was an aunt of Crazy Horses, said he wondered about the millions of dollars which the Ziolkowski family had collected from the visitor center and shops associated with the memorial, and the amount of money being generated by his ancestors name. He said:
Crazy Horse resisted being photographed and was deliberately buried where his grave would not be found. Ziolkowski envisioned the monument as a metaphoric tribute to the spirit of Crazy Horse and Native Americans. He reportedly said, My lands are where my dead lie buried. His extended hand on the monument is to symbolize that statement.16
Sixteen years later, in 1998, the face of Crazy Horse was completed and dedicated; Crazy Horses eyes are 17 feet (5 m) wide.15Ruth Ziolkowski and seven of the Ziolkowskis 10 children carried on work at the memorial.16Ruths daughter, Monique Ziolkowski, herself a sculptor, modified some of her fathers plans to ensure that the weight of the outstretched arm was supported sufficiently.17The foundation commissioned reports from two engineering firms in 2009 to help guide completion of the project.17Work commenced on the horse after two years of careful planning and measurements.13
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TheCrazy Horse Memorialis a mountainmonumentunder construction on privately held land in theBlack Hills, inCuster County, South DakotaUnited States. It will depict thewarrior,Crazy Horse, riding a horse and pointing into the distance. The memorial was commissioned byHenry Standing Bear, a Lakota elder, to be sculpted byKorczak Ziolkowski. It is operated by the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation, anonprofit organization.
A model of the planned colossal sculpture, with the Crazy Horse Memorial in the background (August 2009)
Ruth Ziolkowski obituary: Driving force behind a decades-long project to sculpt a vast memorial to Crazy Horse out of the Black Hills of Dakota.
The memorial is a non-profit undertaking, and receives no federal or state funding. The Memorial Foundation charges fees for its visitor centers and earns revenue from its gift shops. Ziolkowski reportedly was offeredUS$10 million for the project from the federal government on two occasions, but he turned the offers down. He felt the project was more than just a mountain carving, and he feared that his plans for the broader educational and cultural goals of the memorial would be overturned by federal involvement.12
Sidney-Black Hills Stage Road (1876-1887)
Colossal statues in the United States
Karg, Barb; Sutherland, Rick (2010).
In the spring of 1940, Ziolkowski spent three weeks with Standing Bear atPine Ridge, South Dakota, discussing land ownership issues and learning about Crazy Horse and the Lakota way of life. According to Ziolkowski, Standing Bear grew very angry when he spoke of the brokenTreaty of Fort Laramie(1868). That was the one Id read about in which the President promised the Black Hills would belong to the Indians forever. I remember how his old eyes flashed out of that dark mahogany face, then he would shake his head and fall silent for a long while.10
Geography of Custer County, South Dakota
Other traditional Lakota oppose the memorial. In his 1972 autobiography,John Fire Lame Deer, a Lakotamedicine man, said: The whole idea of making a beautiful wild mountain into a statue of him is a pollution of the landscape. It is against the spirit of Crazy Horse.23In a 2001 interview, Lakota activistRussell Meanssaid: Imagine going to the holy land in Israel, whether youre a Christian or a Jew or a Muslim, and start carving up themountain of Zion. Its an insult to our entire being.24
Monuments and memorials in South Dakota
Lame Deer, John (Fire) & Erdoes, Richard (1972).
Buildings and structures under construction in the United States
. August 21, 2006. Archived fromthe originalon Oct 11, 2006
Pages using web citations with no URL
The memorial master plan includes the mountain carving monument, an Indian Museum of North America, and a Native American Cultural Center. The monument is being carved out of Thunderhead Mountain, on land consideredsacredby some Oglala Lakota, betweenCusterandHill City, roughly 17 miles (27km) fromMount Rushmore. The sculptures final dimensions are planned to be 641 feet (195m) wide and 563 feet (172m) high. The head of Crazy Horse will be 87 feet (27m) high; by comparison, the heads of the four U.S. Presidents at Mount Rushmore are each 60 feet (18m) high.
George Kills in Sight Describes the Death of Indian Leader Crazy Horse.
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)established theGreat Sioux Reservation
Rapid City, Black Hills and Western Railroad (18931947)
. Archived fromthe originalon October 18, 2006.
Or did it give them free hand to try to take over the name and make money off it as long as theyre alive and were alive? When you start making money rather than to try to complete the project, thats when, to me, its going off in the wrong direction.22
Native American museums in South Dakota
The Memorial foundation began its first national fund drive in October 2006.1The goal was to raiseUS$16.5 million by 2011. The first planned project was aUS$1.4 million dormitory to house 40 American Indian students who would work asinternsat the memorial.20
On November 7, 1939, Henry Standing Bear wrote to the Polish-American sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski, who worked on Mount Rushmore under Gutzon Borglum. He informed the sculptor, My fellow chiefs and I would like the white man to know that the red man has great heroes, too.10Standing Bear also wrote a letter to UndersecretaryOscar Chapmanof theDepartment of the Interior, offering all his own fertile 900 acres (365 ha) in exchange for the barren mountain for the purpose of paying honor to Crazy Horse. The government responded positively, and theNational Forest Service, responsible for the land, agreed to grant a permit for the use of the land, with a commission to oversee the project. Standing Bear chose not to seek government funds and relied instead upon influential Americans interested in the welfare of the American Indian to privately fund the project.11
Ruth Ziolkowski 1926-2014: Carrying on the dream.
Fossil Cycad National Monument (1922-1957)
Bray, Kingsley M.Notes on the Crazy Horse Genealogy, Part 1.
Bear ButteNational Historic Landmark)
List of the tallest statues in the United States
Secret America: The Hidden Symbols, Codes and Mysteries of the United States
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Rand III, Martin (June 11, 2012).A memorial for Crazy Horse 64 years in the making… so far.
The memorial is to be the centerpiece of an educational/cultural center, to include a satellite campus of theUniversity of South Dakota, with a classroom building and residence hall, made possible by aUS$2.5 million donation in 2007 fromT. Denny Sanford, aphilanthropistfromSioux Falls, South Dakota. It is called the University and Medical Training Center for the North American Indian and the Indian Museum of North America. The current visitor complex will anchor the center.16Sanford also donatedUS$5 million to the memorial, to be paidUS$1 million a year for five years as matching donations were raised, specifically to further work on the horses head.17
Henry Standing Bear(Mato Naji), an Oglala Lakota chief, and well-known statesman and elder in the Native American community, recruited and commissioned Polish-American sculptorKorczak Ziolkowskito build the Crazy Horse Memorial in theBlack HillsofSouth Dakota. In October 1931,Luther Standing Bear, Henrys older brother, wrote sculptorGutzon Borglum, who was carving the heads of four American presidents atMount Rushmore. Luther suggested that it would be most fitting to have the face of Crazy Horse sculpted there. Crazy Horse is the real patriot of the Sioux tribe and the only one worthy to place by the side of Washington and Lincoln. Borglum never replied.7Thereafter, Henry Standing Bear began a campaign to have Borglum carve an image of Crazy Horse on Mt. Rushmore.8In summer of 1935, Standing Bear, frustrated over the stalled Crazy Horse project, wrote to James H. Cook, a long time friend of ChiefRed Clouds I am struggling hopelessly with this because I am without funds, no employment and no assistance from any Indian or White.9
. Adams Media. pp.232233.ISBN978-1-4405-0553-9.
Crazy Horse was aNative Americanwar leader of theOglala Lakota. He took up arms against the U.S. Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of theLakota people. His most famous actions against the U.S. military included theFetterman Fight(21 December 1866) and theBattle of the Little Bighorn(2526 June 1876). He surrendered to U.S. troops underGeneral Crookin May 1877 and was fatally wounded by a military guard, while allegedly45resisting imprisonment atCamp Robinsonin present-dayNebraska. He ranks among the most notable and iconic of Native American tribal members and was honored by theU.S. Postal Servicein 1982 with a 13postage stampthat is part of itsGreat Americans series.6
The monument has been in progress since 1948 and is far from completion.12If completed, it may become theworlds largest sculptureas well as the first non-religious statue to hold this record since 1967 (when it was held by the Soviet monumentThe Motherland Calls3).
Swanson, John.Henry Standing Bear (Mato Najen), Lakota Sioux Intancan.
Museums in Custer County, South Dakota
1948 establishments in South Dakota
. New York: Public Affairs. p.328.
Great White Fathers: The Story of the Obsessive Quest to Create Mount Rushmore
Higbee, Paul (April 27, 2001).Carving Crazy Horse.
They dont respect our culture because we didnt give permission for someone to carve the sacred Black Hills where our burial grounds are. They were there for us to enjoy and they were there for us to pray. But it wasnt meant to be carved into images, which is very wrong for all of us. The more I think about it, the more its a desecration of our Indian culture. Not just Crazy Horse, but all of us.22
Lakota Portraits: Lives of the Legendary Plains People
. Archived fromthe originalon 2015-07-14.
Crazy Horse Memorial Generates Mixed Feelings.
Minuteman Missile National Historic Site
Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage Route (1876-1887)
Salter Reynolds, Susan (December 26, 2010).Book review: The Killing of Crazy Horse by Thomas Powers.
Crazy Horse Memorial fund drive to begin.