How similardifferent are Chinese (Mandarin) Japanese Korean languagesdialects? – Quora

Is the Chinese language similar to Korean?

And my Japanese coworkers who first time came to China always blame that China feels too familiar to be a foreign country—-because they can understand everything by reading the Chinese character in sign, menu, etc.

Which language is easier if Ive previously studied Mandarin Chinese: Korean or Japanese?

How similar are Korean and Japanese languages?

Is this answer still relevant and up to date?

Both Japanese and Korean employ verbal suffixes, albeit that the Korean verbal system is more complicated. Both languages make use of postpositions to indicate the relationship of nouns and place words to the rest of the sentence. In more complex sentences, Japanese and Korean create them in a roughly similar manner.

I dont know how to readMandarin, so my answer may need some help on this one. From what I understand, written Mandarin uses Chinese characters called logograms, which is a bit different from a phonetic alphabet. The characters make Mandarin pretty easy to recognize, I think. It looks like this:

What are the similarities/differences between the Japanese and Chinese languages?

The official Japanese language test JLPT changed its system a few years ago. Before that, it was incredible easy for Chinese people to pass level-4 or 3, my friend passed level-4 without one single word Japanese learning-only by guess, most Chinese people can understand lots of Japanese articles because of so many kanji in common.

I hope this helps to answer your question!

How similar are Korean and Japanese languages?

What are the similarities between Korean and Chinese?

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, PhD student in Linguistics, University of Wisconsin at Madison

Japanese and Korean are related languages even though vocabulary differences are significant. Chinese is not related to the other two.

, Native Chinese, fluent in English & French, learnt Japanese then Korean.

Are Chinese more similar to Koreans or Japanese?

What are the similarities between Korean and Chinese?

Both Japanese and Korean have brought Chinese words into their vocabularies. Usually there is significant changes in place. It seems that most of their Chinese imports occurred at a time when northern Mandarin had the entering tone. Japanese imports of Chinese words make me wonder if they originated from eastern China, especially from the Wu and Min speaking areas. One of the number systems of both Japan and Korea definitely show old Chinese origins, again from a time when Mandarin still had the entering tone.

Mandarin(Chinese, really)has a softer sound and rhythm than the others, in my opinion. Youll hear the sounds zh and x used often, which dont exist in Japanese or Korean. They also have an f sound that doesnt exist in Japanese or Korean(Japanese technically has a sound that transliterates into English as an f, but it isnt pronounced the same.). Mandarin is a tonal language, so theres much more fluctuation or musicality in the rhythm of the spoken language when compared to Japanese or Korean, which are more steady or flat languages. Korean and Japanese tend to be spoken at a faster speed than Mandarin, it seems to me. Ive also noticed that female Mandarin speakers tend to speak in a higher pitched, more nasal voice than Korean or Japanese speakers. You may be able to recognize some distinctive words or phrases that are used often, like Wo (I), Ni (You), Ni hao (Hello, or literally a greeting that asks You well), Wei (Hello when answering the phone), and Xie Xie (Thank you).

What are examples of words in Southern Chinese dialects (languages) that sound similar to their Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese cognates?

Note: Entering Sound example -p:

I can say that, looking typologically (that is, in terms of what features these languages share) Chinese would probably be the odd-man out. Korean and Japanese have fairly simple pitch-accent systems (basically almost the simplest tone system possible), while Mandarin and many of the closely-related Chinese languages have contour tone systems (that is, not just relative pitch between syllables, but also pitch contours — like a little melody within the syllable). Also, most morphemes in Chinese are a single syllable, whereas in Japanese and Korean they can be longer. Chinese also has very little morphology, perhaps only allowing compounding, while Japanese and Korean both have an array of inflectional and derivational suffixes.

For example, as a Chinese, you read a Japanese news paper, you wont understand the grammar at all, but because you can understand most of the nouns that is written in Kanji, (which is very very often exactly the same as who it would written in traditional Chinese.) you can link enough of the nouns together to get a picture of what its probably writing about.

(\ru) in mandarin for Enter

As for the written languages, At one time Chinese character had been used in both Japan and Korea. Korea replaced Chinese characters with an alphabet and Japan created kana systems to work with Chinese characters. In both cases the changes were needed because Chinese characters were not designed for the grammatical changes of words that exist in Japanese and Korean.

Does the Korean language have dialects?

Many people get confused by the fact that Japanese is partially written using Chinese characters (kanjiin Japanese). It should be noted that what writing system a language uses doesnt have any bearing on whether a language is related to another. Hundreds upon hundreds of languages use the Latin alphabet, but not all of those languages are related to Latin. You can also note that a literate Chinese speaker would not be able to read Japanese very easily — many of the characters have changed their meaning in Japanese, and the syntax and morphology of Japanese are still totally different from Chinese.

Is Japanese, Chinese (Mandarin) or Korean the hardest to learn? Why?

Is the Chinese language similar to Korean?

What Chinese dialect is the most similar to Japanese?

WrittenJapaneseuses three different writing systems, one of which are Chinese characters called Kanji. This means that written Japanese can sometimes closely resemble Mandarin. The other two writing systems are called Hiragana and Katakana, and are both phonics-based alphabets. All three writing systems are used together, even in the same sentence. The trick to being able to tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese is to look for unique Japanese syllables like or interspersed with the Kanji characters. So, Japanese will look like this:

To recognize Japanese at a glance you need to be slightly familiar with the two syllable systems. These are used on their own or mixed between the kanji characters. They are like much simplified characters. If you see them, it is Japanese.

The first 2 excellent replies have said it all.

Is Sichuanese a dialect of Mandarin or a language of Chinese?

As noted by Mr. Corley, technically they are not related, but because the later two language borrowed heavily on Chinese Words early in their development (and in modern times the Chinese also used some of the words the Japanese invented, especially regarding western stuff) there are some connections.

Which language is easiest to learn: Chinese, Japanese, or Korean?

Of course the common kanji(hanzi–Chinese character) is a big reason.

Is Hunan speech a dialect of Mandarin or a larger language of Chinese?

Are Korean and Japanese tonal languages like Chinese?

Could it be possible to learn Japanese, Mandarin Chinese, and Korean in a year?

Of course this is too unfair to non-kanji-used country students. I heard thats why they later changed the test system,now focus more on listening and speaking than reading.

As a Chinese native speaker who uses Japanese as a working language, and who is learning English and Spanish as a personal hobby, I feel its really easier to learn Japanese than to learn English/Spanish/French/Greek, etc.

Is Mandarin the same as Beijing dialect?

Are there different dialects of Korean?

Katakana (used for foreign borrowed words, and nature sounds and onomatopoeia words.)

Can someone post a comparison of Mandarin, Classical Chinese, Japanese, and Korean counter/measure words?

Does the Korean language have dialects?

WrittenKoreanis very easy, both to recognize and to learn! It uses a phonetic alphabet called Hangeul, and looks much different than either Mandarin or Japanese. Its written in syllable blocks, not characters. There are lots of straight lines, square corners, and circles that arent found in the other languages. Heres an example: 한국어 is the word Hangugeo, which means Korean. The individual letters ㅎ, ㅏ, and ㄴ are put together to form the first syllable block 한 (which spells Han). Heres what a sentence in Korean looks like:

Korea and Japanese have grammar similar to Turkish & Mongolian (Altaic family), while Chinese has its own very simple grammar.

Koreanis not quite as flat as Japanese, but more so than Mandarin. They dont stress syllables like we do in English, but often the final syllable will end on a down note, so to speak. Youll hear a lot of sentences ending in yo or nida. Korean sounds more emotional than Japanese, I think. Some distinctive words or phrases that might be easy to pick out are Annyeong haseyo (A greeting like Hello), Kamsahamnida (Thank you), Ye or Ne (Yes), Aniyo (No). Theres a popular trend in Korea, especially with girls, to be cute, so you may hear them sound cutesy or whiny (pouty) sometimes.

What Chinese dialect is the most similar to Japanese?

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Is the Japanese language same as Chinese?

If you are asking about telling the writing systems apart by sight, that is easy. Korean is very distinct. To recognize it at a glance just look for small circles. Also vertical lines with one or two small horizontal lines coming off them. These dont exist in Japanese or Chinese. Japanese has small circles used to the upper right of some hiragana to indicate a character that would be a h sound has a p sound. There are no other circles. Korean Hangul is an alphabet invented in the 1400s. Japanese uses a character based system (ideograms called kanji) borrowed from Chinese with the addition of two syllabaries to make the grammar work. Chinese only uses characters. Hangul has 24 letters and 27 digraphs. There are 14 consonants and 10 vowels. The are grouped together in blocks that make up a syllable. Linguists call it the most perfect phonetic system devised. This is because it fits and describes the sounds so well.

They are three unrelated languages, as far as we know for certain. Korean and Japanese are very similar in some respects (both have very sophisticated politeness systems embedded in their morphology, for example), and some have argued that they could be related, but not knowing more about those languages, Ill refrain from going too far into that. There will be some resemblance in vocabulary, since both Japanese and Korean borrowed heavily from Chinese at various times in the past.

Is Japanese, Chinese (Mandarin) or Korean the hardest to learn? Why?

Hiragana. There are 48 basic ones, 5 single vowels, 42 consonant-vowel syllables and one single consonant. There are 25 that get different sounds when they have diacritics. And there are digraphs to make other combined sounds.

Being a Chinese, especially from the southern Fujian province, the pronunciation of Chinese characters still kept in Korean Hanja (60%) and Japanese Kanji (30% ?) are very similar. This has historical background : the northern Chinese who escaped wars to the southern China from 7 CE to 10 CE (Song dynasty) kept the Tang tone which was learned by then Koreans and Japanese. While the Mandarin or Putong-hua spoken today in China is a mlange of Manchurian with Beijing dialect, notably the sounds sh-, zh-, er-, also totally disappear of ending sound -b, -p, -k (Entering sound ) but still preserved in Korean (so called Batchim, very prominent and influential in Hangeul spelling and grammar) and Southern Chinese dialects like Fujian, Chaozhou, Hakkah & Cantonese.

Japanese and Korean put their sentences in an overall similar way. In simple sentences the of the two languages are alike ( Subject + Objects + Verb) and ( Adjectives or adjectival phrases precede the noun that they modify).

What are the similarities/differences between the Japanese and Chinese languages?

, Well versed on history of China, and follows its politics a bit

Chinese grammar is far more simplistic and consistent in logic than most other language, (for example, no worries about past / present tense. ) the difficulty lies in that the words to piece it together are all individually unique and thus you would need to know a very large number of words to be able to properly wield it.Is this answer still relevant and up to date?

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What are the differences between the Japanese, Chinese, and Korean languages?

From a laymans point of view, Japanese sounds the clearest. Probably this is because most syllables in Japanese are of CV structure (one cosonant followed by one vowel, open-syllable). Therefore you can see typical Japanese words like: sakura, kuruma (a vehicle), yama (moutain), kawa (river), hito (man, person), etc., etc. Then, of course, there is also an insignificant amount of closed syllables, either sokuon (geminated consonant) or hatsuon (the final -n sound), e.g. futon, Nippon. But, overall, Japanese syllables sound simple and easy to distinguish: this always reminds me of traditional Japanese painting, the ukiyoe, which is famous for clearness and tranquility.

Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Language Group

That is to say, if you are truly well versed in these language, especially the more classical elements of it (since the modern PRC simplified Chinese and South Koreas policy of removing Kanji from the everyday language complicate things considerably) you should be able to at least understand the gist of the other 2 language in WRITING.

So I guess its just like English speakers visit Spain—- you can understand so many things by reading, but have no idea what people are saying.

Is this answer still relevant and up to date?

Is Hunan speech a dialect of Mandarin or a larger language of Chinese?

How similar/different are Chinese (Mandarin), Japanese, Korean languages/dialects?

Can someone post a comparison of Mandarin, Classical Chinese, Japanese, and Korean counter/measure words?

Im not a linguist, neither can I speak Korean. Here is only some very visible simple things I feel.

To tell the sounds apart you just need to listen to examples for a day or two. It is not hard. They are very different. Chinese is tonal and Korean and Japanese are not. Chinese has more shorter one or two syllable words. Japanese mostly has many syllable words. Japanese use the word ne? at the end of a lot of sentences. It means a little like French N est-ce pas?. Questions in Japanese have a ka? at the end. Korean sentences often have soyo at the end. The rest you can get by just watching a movie in each. After that you will be able to recognize them.

The Chinese derived characters are pretty much the same in Japanese or Chinese. You will not be able to tell them apart.

Japanese, as I mentioned previously, is a flat language, with a very steady rhythm. They dont stress syllables as obviously as we do in English. My married last name is Japanese, and here in the US, its always pronounced Ig-uh-RAH-shee. In Japan, its more like Eeg-ah-lah-shee, without as much of a stressed syllable. Japanese is precise, with short, clipped syllables. Very difficult for my southern US mouth thats accustomed to drawing out syllables, lol. When listening to Japanese, youll hear a lot of sentences ending with desu, masu, or ka. You may be able to pick out distinctive words like Konnichiwa (Hello), Arigatou (Thank you), or Hai (Yes).

(Edited to add: Korean does also use Chinese characters called Hanja sometimes, but these are rarely used nowadays. Most Koreans know their name in Hanja, but might not know much more than that unless they have a special interest in learning Hanja. For example, one would need to know Hanja to read historical documents.)

Korean has similar syllable structure to Chinese, but it has very special fricatives and affricates which sounds like some heavy hissing sounds and this marks the language. Also, Korean does not have syllabic tone, but phrasal tones, i.e. they attribute tones to sentences to convey different attitudes, emotions, and so on. Thus, apart from similar syllabic structures (there are CVC and CV syllables) to Chinese, the two sound rather different. Another thing to notice is that Korean has the strongest aspiration in aspirational consonants among the three as a result, to my Chinese ears it sounds a bit forceful from time to time: the speaker seems to be expressing very hearty and powerful feelings while, actually, it might just be some simple questions or greetings.

I love studying languages, but Im not an expert by any means, so I welcome all (respectful) comments that offer more information or corrections! =)

I have seen Eric Painters reply which I like very much, especially because of the samples of Chinese, Korean and Japanese charts that he has provided. There is therefore no need for me to repeat what he has done.

Linguistics PhD candidate at Edinburgh. Has lived in USA, Sweden, Italy, UK.

Their relationship is similar to Latin to French and English, with Chinese playing the root role of Latin, Korean as French, Japanese as English. (In this evolution sequence because French was from Latin, and influenced English Court around 1000 AD). Chinese influenced Korea for over 3 thousand years, not only the chinese characters (which were replaced in 1980s by Hangeul Korean alphabet), also the culture, Confucius philosophy, feudal political system, and Exams system for selecting mandarins for the government officials. Japanese learned Chinese from Korea, then in Tang dynasty (7 CE) directly sent many Japanese students to China.

What are the differences between the Japanese, Chinese, and Korean languages?

Chinese (Mandarin and other dialects) is, first of all, tonal. So one can hear a speaker places equal strength in most of the syllables except some particle words because the tone of almost every syllable matters. This gives a very distinguishing first impression. Besides, Mandarin Chinese has a set of retroflex fricatives and affricates: zh chi sh r which are unique among the three languages. So, somehow, listening to someone speaking Mandarin feels like reading articles exclusively written in Chinese character (the old books: no Arabic numbers, no punctuations, no other signs, just Chinese characters) every syllable emphasized by a single tone resembles a Chinese character with a unique meaning in a sentence. (This is quite subjective because Thai and Vietnamese are also tonal and mostly monosyllabic, but since we are not adding them to the comparing list, so..)

I just add from my experience being a native Chinese who also learned Japanese followed by Korean.

Are there different dialects of Korean?

, Courses in Linguistics at Notre Dame U., Kansas U. and U of MichiganWhat are the differences between the Japanese, Chinese, and Korean languages?

*Edited to add that Chinese characters are called Hanzi.*

Chinese, on the other hand tends to have a subject + verb + object word order. Adjectives and adjectival phrases do precede the noun but in the various dialect of Chinese, there is a particle that usually follows the adjective and precedes the noun.

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