Articles containing Chinese-language text
SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2003-012, Dallas, TX: SIL International.
There are a significant immigrant and spouses inTaiwanare fromSouth-East Asia.
Cheng, Hung-ta; Chung, Jake (30 December 2017).Hakka made an official language.
Traditional Chinese charactersis widely used inTaiwanto writeSinitic languagesincludingMandarinTaiwanese HokkienandHakka. TheMinistry of Educationmaintains standards of writing for these languages, publications including theStandard Form of National Charactersand the recommended characters for Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka.
Hakka made an official language. Taipei Times
Families of Formosan languages before Chinese colonization, perBlust (1999). Malayo-Polynesian (red) may lie within Eastern Formosan (purple). Note that the white section in the northwest of the country does not indicate a complete absence of aboriginal people from that part of Taiwan. On Chinese-language sources,
Main articles:Writing systems of Formosan languagesandChinese language romanization in Taiwan
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(A history of the classification of Plains Taiwanese tribes over the past century).
TheTaiwanese indigenous languagesorFormosan languagesare the languages of theaboriginal tribesofTaiwan. Taiwanese aborigines currently comprise about 2.3% of the islands population.However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language, after centuries oflanguage shift. It is common for young and middle-aged Hakka and aboriginal people to speak Mandarin and Hokkien better than, or to the exclusion of, their ethnic languages. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten areextinct, another five aremoribund,and several others are to some degreeendangered. Currently the government recognized 16 languages and 42 accents of the indigenous languages, they are
See also:Taiwanese Romanization SystemandTaiwanese Hakka Romanization System
Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012
A Survey of Language Ability, Language Use and Language Attitudes of Young Aborigines in Taiwan.
TheJapanese languagewas compulsorily taught whileTaiwan was under Japanese rule(1895 to 1945). Although fluency is now largely limited to the elderly, most of Taiwans youth who look to Japan as the trend-setter of the regions youth pop culture now might know a bit of Japanese through themedia, their grandparents, or classes taken from privatecram schools.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20)
Sociolinguistic survey report for the Tona and Maga dialects of the Rukai Language.
The governmental agency Council of Indigenous Peoples maintains the orthography of thewriting systems of Formosan languages. Due to the era ofTaiwan under Japanese rule, a large amount ofloanwordsfromJapanese languagealso appears in Formosan languages. There is alsoYilan Creole Japaneseas a mixture ofJapaneseandAtayal.
Taiwanese Mandarin (as withSinglishand many other situations of acreole speech community) is spoken at different levels according to the social class and situation of the speakers. Formal occasions call for theacrolectallevel of Standard Chinese ofTaiwan(,Guy), which differs little from the Standard Chinese ofChina(,Ptnghu). Less formal situations may result in thebasilectform, which has more uniquely Taiwanese features. Bilingual Taiwanese speakers maycode-switchbetween Mandarin and Taiwanese, sometimes in the same sentence.
The sole purpose for Zhuyin in elementary education is to teach standard Mandarin pronunciation to children. Grade one textbooks of all subjects (including Mandarin) are entirely in zhuyin. After that year, Chinese character texts are given in annotated form. Around grade four, presence of Zhuyin annotation is greatly reduced, remaining only in the new character section.Schoolchildren learn the symbols so that they can decode pronunciations given in a Chinese dictionary, and also so that they can find how to write words for which they know only the sounds.
In Hoffmann, Charlotte & Jehannes Ytsma (Eds.)2007-05-26 at theWayback Machine. pp.101-117. Clevedon, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.ISBN1-85359-693-0
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. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University.
: Javanese is also spoken byJavanese peoplefrom Indonesia who are in Taiwan.
Learning Vietnamese gaining popularity in Taiwan.
Amisis the most widely spoken aboriginal language. The government estimates put the number ofAmis peopleat a little over 200,000, but number of people who speak Amis as their first language like lower than 10,000.Amis has appeared in some mainstream popular music.Other significant indigenous languages includesAtayalPaiwan, andBunun. In addition to the recognized languages, there are around 10 to 12 groups ofTaiwanese Plains Indigenous Peopleswith their respective languages. Some indigenous people and languages are recognized bylocal governments, these includeSirayaMakataoandTaivoan. Some otherlanguage revitalizationmovements are going onBasayPazehBabuza-Taokas.
Recent work by scholars such asEkki LuSakai Toru, andL Khîn-hoⁿ(also known as Tavokan Khîn-hoⁿ or Chin-An Li), based on former research by scholars such asÔng Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial language with theAustronesianandTailanguage families; however, such claims are not without controversy. Recently there has been a growing use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media.
These phonetic symbols sometimes appear asruby charactersprinted next to the Chinese characters in young childrensbooks, and in editions of classical texts (which frequently use characters that appear at very low frequency rates in newspapers and other such daily fare). In advertisements, these phonetic symbols are sometimes used to write certain particles (e.g.,instead of); other than this, one seldom sees these symbols used in mass media adult publications except as a pronunciation guide (or index system) indictionaryentries. Bopomofo symbols are also mapped to the ordinary Roman character keyboard (1 =bo, q =po, a =mo, and so forth) used in onemethodfor inputting Chinese text when using thecomputer.
Commonly known asTaiwanese(,Tâi-g) and officially referred asTaiwanese Hokkien(,Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-g).Taiwanese Hokkienis the most-spoken native language inTaiwan, spoken by about 70% of the population.Linguistically, it is a subgroup ofSouthern Minlanguages variety originating in southernFujianand is spoken by manyoverseas ChinesethroughoutSoutheast Asia.
Mair, V. H.(2003).How to Forget Your Mother Tongue and Remember Your National Language.
Traditional Chinese characters are also used in Hong Kong, a small number of characters are written differently in Taiwan; theStandard Form of National Charactersis the orthography standard used in Taiwan and administered by theMinistry of Education, and has minor variances compared with thestandardised character formsused in Hong Kong. Such differences relate toorthodox and vulgar variantsof Chinese characters.
President lauds efforts in transitional justice for indigenous people. Focus Taiwan
Articles to be expanded from December 2009
The Republic of China Yearbook 2010
The Formosan Language Archive: Linguistic Analysis and Language Processing
President lauds efforts in transitional justice for indigenous people. Focus Taiwan
: Cantonese is spoken by many Hong Kong and Macau immigrants in Taiwan.
Articles needing additional references from November 2013
Latin alphabetis native toFormosan languagesand partially native toTaiwanese HokkienandHakka. With the early influences of European missionaries, writing systems such asSinckan ManuscriptsPe̍h-e-j, andPha̍k-fa-sṳwere based on in Latin alphabet. Currently the officialWriting systemsofFormosan languagesis solely based on Latin and maintained by theCouncil of Indigenous Peoples. TheMinistry of Educationalso maintains Latin based systemsTaiwanese Romanization SystemforTaiwanese Hokkien, andTaiwanese Hakka Romanization SystemforHakka. The textbook ofTaiwanese HokkienandHakkaare written in a mixed script ofTraditional Chinese charactersand Latin alphabet.
Taiwanese Talent Turns to Southeast Asia.
. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. Volume 10, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 167-200
Mandarin is commonly known and officially refereed as thenational language(,Guy) inTaiwan. In 1945, following the end ofWorld War II, Mandarin was introduced as the official language and made compulsory in schools. (Before 1945,Japanesewas the official language and taught in schools.) Since then, Mandarin has been established as alingua francaamong the various groups in Taiwan: the majorityTaiwanese-speakingHoklo(Hokkien), theHakkawho have their ownspoken language, theaboriginalswho speak aboriginal languages, as well asMainland Chineseimmigrated in 1949 whose native tongue may be anyChinese variant.
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Learning Vietnamese as a heritage language in Taiwan.
Thelanguages ofTaiwanconsist of several varieties of languages under families ofAustronesian languagesandSino-Tibetan languagesspoken inTaiwan. TheFormosan languages, a branch ofAustronesian languages, have been spoken by theTaiwanese aboriginesinTaiwanfor thousands of years. Researches onhistorical linguisticsrecognize Taiwan as theUrheimat(homeland) of the wholeAustronesian languagesfamily due to the highest internal variety of theFormosan languages. In the last 400 years, several waves ofChinese emigrationsbrought several differentSino-Tibetan languagesinto Taiwan, these languages includeTaiwanese HokkienHakka, andMandarin. These people and languages become the major languages of todays Taiwan, and also make Taiwan is an important center ofHokkien popandMandopop.
: English is a common foreign language, with some large private schools providing English instruction. English is compulsory in students curriculum once they enter elementary school. English as a school subject is also featured on Taiwans education exams.
Klöter, Henning nguage Policy in the KMT and DPP eras.
. M.E. Sharpe. p.362.ISBN32.
Cheng, Robert L. (1994). Chapter 13: Language Unification in Taiwan: Present and Future. In Rubinstein, Murray.
A great part of Taiwanese Hokkien is generally understood by other dialects of Hokkien as spoken inChinaandSouth-east Asiabut has a degree of intelligibility with theTeochewvariant ofSouthern Minspoken in Eastern Guangdong,China. It is, however, mutually unintelligible with Mandarin or other Chinese languages.
People who emigrated fromChinaafter 1949 (12% of the population) mostly speakMandarin Chinese.Mandarinis almost universally spoken and understood.It was the only officially sanctioned medium of instruction inschools in Taiwanfrom late 1940s to late 1970s, following the handover ofTaiwanto thegovernment of the Republic of Chinain 1945, untilEnglishbecame a high school subject in the 1980s and local languages became a school subject in the 2000s.
The most commonly used home language in Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, 2010. (blue cmn = Mandarin, green nan = Hokkien/Min Nan, hot-pink hak = Hakka, burgundy map = austronesian languages)
The Other Taiwan: 1945 to the Present
Chinese language romanization in Taiwantends to be highly inconsistent. Taiwan still uses the Zhuyin system and does not use theLatin alphabetas the language phonetic symbol. TraditionallyWadeGilesis used, the central government adoptedTongyong Pinyinas the official romanization in 2002 but local governments are permitted to override the standard as some have adoptedHanyu Pinyinand retained old romanizations that are commonly used. However, in August 2008 the central government announced thatHanyu Pinyinwill be the only system of Romanization in Taiwan as of January 2009.
: Dutch was taught to the residents of the island during theDutch colonial rule of Taiwan. After the withdrawal of Dutch presence in Taiwan, the use of the language disappeared.
Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan
Noble, Gregory W. (2005). What Can Taiwan (and the United States) Expect from Japan?.
Survey of Taiwan aboriginal languages
Matsu dialect(,M-c-huâ) is the language spoken inMatsu islands. It is a dialect ofFuzhou dialectEastern Min.
The Republic of China Yearbook 2012
All Formosan languages are slowly being replaced by the culturally dominant Mandarin. In recent decades the government started an aboriginal reappreciation program that included the reintroduction of Formosanmother tongue educationin Taiwanese schools. However, the results of this initiative have been disappointing.Television station Taiwan Indigenous Television, and radio station Alian 96.3were created as an efforts to revive the indigenous languages. Formosan languages were made an official language in July 2017.
Liao, Silvie (2008).A Perceptual Dialect Study of Taiwan Mandarin: Language Attitudes in the Era of Political Battle
: Tagalog is also spoken byFilipino peoplefrom Philippines who are in Taiwan about among the approximately 108,520Filipinos in Taiwan.
this area is listed as the homeland of variousPlains Indigenousgroups (e.g. theKulon), and certain other groups (e.g. theTaokas) are arranged slightly differently than they are on the above map.
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Mandarin is spoken fluently by almost the entire Taiwanese population, except for some elderly people who were educated under Japanese rule. InTaipei, where there is a high concentration ofMainland Chinesewhose native language is not Taiwanese, Mandarin is used in greater frequency than in southern Taiwan and more rural areas.Many Taiwanese, particularly the younger generations, speak Mandarin better than Hakka or Hokkien.
There are both colloquial and literaryregistersof Taiwanese. Colloquial Taiwanese has roots inOld Chinese. Literary Taiwanese, which was originally developed in the 10th century in Fujian and based onMiddle Chinese, was used at one time for formal writing, but is now largely extinct. Due to the era ofTaiwan under Japanese rule, a large amount ofloanwordsfromJapanese languagealso appears in Taiwanese. The loanwords may be read inKanjithrough Taiwanese pronunciation or simply use the Japanese pronunciation. These reasons makes the modern writing Taiwanese in a mixed script oftraditional Chinese charactersand Latin-based systems such aspe̍h-e-jorTaiwanese romanization system.
The accents of Taiwanese is relatively small but still exist, the standard accent Thong-hng accent () is sampled fromKaohsiungcity.while other accents fall into a spectrum between
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
: There are somewhere around 200,000Vietnamese in Taiwan, many of whom speak Vietnamese. There has been some effort, particularly beginning in 2011, to teach Vietnamese as a heritage language to children of Vietnamese immigrants.
Hakka(,Hak-kâ-ngî) is mainly spoken in Taiwan by people who haveHakkaancestry, these people are concentrated in several places throughout Taiwan. Majority ofHakka Taiwanesereside inTaoyuanHsinchuandMiaoli. Hakka was made an official language in December 2017.Currently the Hakka language in Taiwan is maintained byHakka Affairs Council, this governmental agency also runsHakka TVand Hakka Radio stations. The government currently recognizes and maintains six Hakka dialects in Taiwan.
Written vernacular Chineseis the standard ofwritten Chineseused in official documents, general literature and most aspects of everyday life, and has grammar based onModern Standard Mandarin. Vernacular Chinese is the modern written variant of Chinese that supplanted the use ofclassical Chinesein literature following theNew Culture Movementof the early 20th Century, which is based on the grammar of Chinese spoken in ancient times. In recent times, following theTaiwan localization movementand an increasing presence of Taiwanese literature,written Hokkienbased on the vocabulary and grammar ofTaiwanese Hokkienis occasionally used in literature and informal communications.
: 393.ISBN00OCLC895153060. Archived fromthe original
After World War II, a longmartial law erawas held inTaiwan. Policies of the government in this era suppressed languages other thanMandarinin public use. This has significantly damaged the evolution of local languages includingTaiwanese HokkienHakkaFormosan languagesandMatsu dialect. The situation has slightly changed after the 2000s. The government has put some efforts to protect and revitalize local languages. Local languages is now a part ofelementary school educationinTaiwan. Laws and regulations regarding local language protection were established forHakkaandFormosan languages. Public TV and radio stations exclusively for the two languages were also established. Currently, the government of Taiwan also maintains standards of several widely spoken languages listed below, the percentage of users are from the2010 population and household census in Taiwan
Zhuyin Fuhao, often abbreviated asZhuyin, or known asBopomofoafter its first four letters, is thephoneticsystem ofTaiwanfor teaching the pronunciation ofChinese characters, especially inMandarinMandarinuses 37 symbols to represent its sounds: 21consonantsand 16rimesTaiwanese Hokkienuses 45 symbols to represent its sounds: 21consonantsand 24rimes. There is also a system created forHakkalanguage.
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. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). p.42.ISBN81. Archived fromthe original
: Indonesian is the most widely spoken language among the approximately 140,000Indonesians in Taiwan.
Han TaiwaneseHoklo TaiwaneseHakka Taiwanese
. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan). 2012. p.24.ISBN02. Archived fromthe originalon 2013-10-14
Formosan languageswere the dominant language of thePrehistory of Taiwan. The long colonial and immigrationhistory of Taiwanbrought in several languages such asDutchSpanishHokkienHakkaJapaneseandMandarin. Due to its colonial history,Japaneseis also spoken and a large amount of loanwords from Japanese still exists in several languages of Taiwan.
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