Persian

Persian has 32 letters of alphabet not 29, and if you consider phonemes, there are 24 consonant phonemes( 2 H sounds, 3 s, 4 z, 2 t) and 6 vowel phonemes in Persian.

The sound system of Standard Persian has 29 phonemes, i.e., sounds that make a difference in word meaning. The description below is based on the speech of educated people in Teheran.

Western Persian(New Persian, Parsi, Persian) is spoken as a 1st language by 45 million people in Iran, a multilingual country, out of a total population of 81 million. It is the official language of Iran (Ethnologue). It is also spoken in Iraq, Oman, Qatar, and Tajikistan.  Standard Persian is based on the dialect spoken in and around Teheran, the capital of Iran.

Persian verbs are marked for the following categories:

Persian, Frsi, is a member of theIndo-Iranian branchof theIndo-European language family. It is amacrolanguagespoken by an estimated 110 million people worldwide, primarily in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. The language is known by several names.is the more widely used name of the language in English, from Latin. TheAcademy of Persian Language and Literaturecalls the language, the name of the region where the language evolved.in Arabic which lacks the sound [p].is the local name used for Persian in Afghanistan.) is the local name used for Persian in Tajikistan.

New words are formed from nouns, adjectives and verbal stems throughderivationandcompounding. In addition, Persian contains a large number ofArabicloan words. They are  more common in the written than in the spoken language. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Farsi,Dari,andTajikhave experienced different influences on their vocabulary.Pashtowords have been introduced into Dari in Afghanistan, and a large number of Russian words has entered Tajik in Tajikistan. Farsi has borrowed a significant number of words fromFrenchGerman, and most recently fromEnglish, especially in science and technology.

Tæmam e æfrad e bæscær azad be donja mi ajænd o æz læhaz e hejsijæt o hoghugh ba hæm bærabær ænd. Hæme dara je æghl o vedjan mi bascænd o bajæd nesbæt be jek digær ba ruh e bradæri ræftar konænd.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

You have given the (transcribed)example: be man ketb-ra Hasan and translated it as: as for the book, he gave it to Hasan, stating that it is an example of how the suffix -r indicates topicalization. Firstly, the sentence does not mean He gave Hasan the book in fact it means very little, as there is no verb: (he) gave is dd, but it has been omitted from the example. But were it present, be man ketb-ra Hasan dd, it would mean It was me to whom Hasan gave the book. In fact, r marks the definite object, and topicalization in this sentence is shown by word order, with be-man to me coming at the start of the sentence. The ordinary neutral word order would be : Hasan ketb-ra be-man dd Hasan gave me the book. Finally, the transcripion of the particle r, should bear the macron to show it is a long a sound.

Tajiki(Galcha, Tadzhik, Tajik, Tajiki Persian, Tojiki) is spoken by 4.5 million people primarily in theTajikistanandUzbekistan, former Soviet republics in Central Asia (Ethnologue). Tajiki is the official language of Tajikistan. It is also spoken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and

Subject pronouns are usually dropped since the verb form already carries information about person and number.

The Latin script version of the Perso-Arabic text:

The bulk of the surviving Persian literature comes from the times following the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th-8th centuries AD when the Persians, who wrote in both Persian and Arabic, became the scribes and bureaucrats, as well as writers and poets, of the Islamic empire. Persian poets such asSaadiHafezOmar KhayyamandRumihave left a significant mark on the literature of many countries.

The Persian numerals 0-9 written above are totally wrong! Here are the Persian numbers 0-9:

the book of Ali. Modifiers are also connected to the noun modified by the particle

Persian distinguishes between genericity and indefiniteness. This applies to both count and mass nouns. It is expressed by the suffix

group of desert travelers

, while nouns borrowed from Arabic usually take

Any unmodified noun in Persian may be generic, i.e., refer to one or more than one items. Plural is not obligatory when more than one item are implied. The marker

some books. Definiteness is not marked formally.

Aspectis as important as tense. There are two aspects:imperfectiveandperfective.

Japanese (Nihongo, ) belongs to the Japonic language family. It is spoken as a first language by 122 million and as a second language…

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The normal word order in Persian is Subject-Object-Verb. Modifiers follow the nouns they modify.

The text in Perso-Arabic is totally unrelated to the text in Latin script. It seems there was a mistake to set it.

The grammatical systems of Farsi (Western) Persian and Dari (Eastern) Persian do not differ in any significant way. The description below covers the main grammar points of both languages. Both Dari and Farsi are inflected languages, i.e., they add suffixes torootsto express grammatical relations and to form words. Unlike many other Iranian languages,Dariand Farsi have lost most of their noun and verb inflections.

English has borrowed a number of words from Persian. Persian, in turn, borrowed many of these words fromArabic. Most of them came into English indirectly through other languages, mostlyFrenchandGreek. A few of them are listed below:

books, and amplification with mass nouns, e.g.,

Take a look Article 1 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rightsin the Perso-Arabic script and in the Latin script.

Persian and Dari are written in thePerso-Arabicscript, which contains additional letters to represent Persian sounds [p], [ʃ], [ʒ], [g], not represented in the Arabic alphabet. The alphabet is basically consonant-based. Like Arabic, it is written from right to left. Tajik uses a modified Cyrillic alphabet.

Eastern Persian(Dari, Afghan Persian, East Farsi) is the first language of about 7.6 million people in Afghanistan, theKhorasan Provinceof Iran, and in Pakistan (Ethnologue). It is the co-official language of Afghanistan, along withPashto.Dari is Afghanistans l

Possession is marked by the particle

Persian enjoys official status in three countries.

signals plural with count nouns, e.g.,

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+ infinitive). All present and past forms may be used in a future context.

striped cloth, literally milk and sugar, an allusion to the alternately smooth and puckered surfaces of the stripes; from

Stress typically falls on the last syllable of theroot.

Tæmam e æfrad e bæscær azad be donja mi ajænd o æz læhaz e hejsijæt o hoghugh ba hæm bærabær ænd. Hæme dara je æghl o vedjan mi bascænd o bajæd nesbæt be jek digær ba ruh e bradæri ræftar konænd.

all kinds of water, lots of water. Human nouns take

In recent years, efforts have been made to introduce alternative alphabets for writing Persian. One such proposed alphabet isUniPerswhich is given below.

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Clickon theMLA Interactive Language Mapto find out where Persian is spoken in the U.S.

Below are a few common Persian phrases and words given in romanization.

The Yu dialects, also known as Cantonese (Guăngdnghu), are one of the major dialect groups of China. They are spoken by 52 million people in…

Future is not a tense but a modality (similar to the English

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Igbo (Asụsụ Igbo), or Ibo , one of the largest languages of West Africa, is spoken by 18 million people in Nigeria. It belongs…

There are two numbers: singular, and plural.

, a kind of rich cloth, not necessarily red

There are three persons: first, second, and third.

There are threemoodsindicativesubjunctivecounterfactual conditional.

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Ethnologuelists some 20 dialects of Persian that are usually divided into three major mutually intelligible groups whose treatment as separate languages is primarily based on geopolitical considerations.  The three groups have diverged in their sound systems, and to some extent, in their structure and vocabulary, the latter showing differential influences ofArabic(in Iran),Pashto(in Afghanistan), andRussian(in Tajikistan). However, the literary language is virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, exhibiting only very minor differences.

. Adjectives are not marked for number. Some nouns borrowed from Arabic can be pluralized by using the Arabic broken plural.

Causality is marked by the suffix

Persian has six vowel phonemes which are given below.

and is the native tongue of various Afghan ethnic groups

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The written text is not the universal declaration of human rights. It opens temam afrad not sare insad as in the transliteration

There are three tenses: present, past, and inferential past. Inferential past expresses second-hand knowledge, information, or conclusions.

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