Yin is characterized as slow, soft, yielding, diffuse, cold, wet, and passive; and is associated with water, earth, the moon,femininity, and night time.
Yang or Bound morpheme [Chinese philosophy] positive/active/male principle in nature the sun in relief open; overt belonging to this world [linguistics] masculine south side of a hill north bank of a river
, University of Hawaii Press, 2007, 558, 572.
a.In Chinese philosophy, the feminine or negative principle (characterized by dark, wetness, cold, passivity, disintegration, etc.) of the two opposing cosmic forces into which creative energy divides and whose fusion in physical matter brings the phenomenal world into being. Alsoattrib. or asadj., andtransf. Cf.yang.
Many Chinese place names ortoponymscontain the wordyangsunny side and a few containyinshady side. InChina, as elsewhere in theNorthern Hemisphere, sunlight comes predominantly from the south, and thus the south face of a mountain or the north bank of a river will receive more direct sunlight than the opposite side.
Taylor Latener, Rodney Leon (2005).
A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology
). Various modern scholars suggest dates ranging between the 10th and 4th centuries BC for the assembly of the text in approximately its current form. Nylan, Michael (2001),
Similarly,yinrefers to north side of a hill inHuayin, which is north ofMount Hua inShaanxiprovince.
InJapan, the characters are used in westernHonshuto delineate the north-sideSanin region from the south-sideSany region, separated by theChugoku mountain range.
In English,yang-yin(likeying-yang) occasionally occurs as a mistake or typographical error for the Chinese loanwordyin-yang yet they are not equivalents. Chinese does have someyangyincollocations, such as (lit. foreign silver) silver coin/dollar, but not even the most comprehensive dictionaries (e.g., theHanyu Da Cidian) enteryangyin*. Whileyangandyincan occur together in context,yangyinis not synonymous withyinyang. The linguistic termirreversible binomialrefers to a collocation of two words A-B that cannot normally be reversed as B-A, for example, Englishcat and mouse(not *mouse and cat) andfriend or foe(not *foe or friend). Similarly, the usual pattern among Chinese binomial compounds is for positive A and negative B, where the A word is dominant or privileged over B, for example,tiandi heaven and earth andnann men and women.Yinyangmeaning dark and light; female and male; moon and sun, however, is an exception. Scholars have proposed various explanations for whyyinyangviolates this pattern, including linguistic convenience (it is easier to sayyinyangthanyangyin), the idea that proto-Chinese society was matriarchal, or perhaps, sinceyinyangfirst became prominent during the late Warring States period, this term was purposely directed at challenging persistent cultural assumptions.
, a circle divided by an S-shaped line into a dark and a light segment, representing respectively
, each containing a seed of the other.
TheModern Standard Chinesepronunciation of or is usually level firsttoneynshady; cloudy or sometimes falling fourth toneynto shelter; shade, and or sunny is always pronounced with rising second toneyng.
InDaoistphilosophy, dark and light, yin and yang, arrive in theTao Te Chingat chapter 42. It becomes sensible from an initial quiescence or emptiness (wuji, sometimes symbolized by an empty circle), and continues moving untilquiescenceis reached again. For instance, dropping a stone in a calm pool of water will simultaneously raise waves and lower troughs between them, andthis alternation of high and low points in the water will radiate outward until the movement dissipates and the pool is calm once more. Yin and yang thus are always opposite and equal qualities. Further, whenever one quality reaches its peak, it will naturally begin to transform into the opposite quality: for example, grain that reaches its full height in summer (fully yang) will produce seeds and die back in winter (fully yin) in an endless cycle.
TheseChinesetermsyin or shady side andyang or sunny side are linguistically analyzable in terms ofChinese characterspronunciationsandetymologymeaningstopography, andloanwords.
Thecompoundyin-yang or means yin and yang; opposites; ancient Chinese astronomy; occult arts; astrologer; geomancer; etc..
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ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary
, the combination or fusion of the two cosmic forces; freq. attrib., esp. as
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
says Now, the lumber is not so important as the forest; the forest is not so important as the rain; the rain is not so important as yin and yang; yin and yang are not so important as harmony; and harmony is not so important as the Way. (12, ; tr. Major et al. 2010, 442).
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Confucianism
A reliableChinese-English dictionarygives the following translation equivalents.
XIX, 1850, 375: … when in the Yih King (or Book of Diagrams) we read of the Great Extreme, it means that the Great Extreme is in the midst of the active-passive primordial substance (Yin-yng); and that it is not exterior to, or separate from the Yin-yng.
Baxter & Sagart (2014), pp. 326-378.
InChinese philosophy,yin and yang(/jɪn/and/jːŋ,jæŋ/;Chinese:ynyng, lit. dark-bright, negative-positive) describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary,interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. Many tangibledualities(such aslight and dark, fire and water, expanding and contracting) are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality symbolized by yin and yang. This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classicalChinese scienceand philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline oftraditional Chinese medicine,and a central principle of different forms ofChinese martial artsand exercise, such asbaguazhangtaijiquan(tai chi), andqigong(Chi Kung), as well as appearing in the pages of theI Ching.
This page was last edited on 17 June 2018, at 19:20
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Helmut Nickel: The Dragon and the Pearl,
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. MIT Press.ISBN0-262-16058-7.
Atlas Chinensis: Being a relation of remarkable passages in two embassies from the East-India Company of the United Provinces to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, General Taising Lipovi, and Konchi, Emperor, Thomas Johnson
has its origins in aWestern Zhoudivination text called the
Duality is found in many belief systems, but yin and yang are parts of an oneness that is also equated with theTao. The term dualistic-monism ordialectical monismhas been coined in an attempt to express this fruitfulparadoxof simultaneous unity/duality. Yin and yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces that interact to form a dynamic system in which the whole is greater than the assembled parts.According to this philosophy, everything has both yin and yang aspects (for instance, shadow cannot exist without light). Either of the two major aspects may manifest more strongly in a particular object, depending on the criterion of the observation. The yin yang (i.e.taijitusymbol) shows a balance between two opposites with a portion of the opposite element in each section.
ISBN978-0-918860-17-0 viaGoogle Books.
Precelestial and Postcelestial Yin and Yang, by Liu Yiming (17341821)
Sinologists and historical linguists have reconstructedMiddle Chinesepronunciations from data in the (7th century CE)Qieyunrhyme dictionaryand laterrhyme tables, which was subsequently used to reconstructOld Chinese phonologyfrom rhymes in the (11th-7th centuries BCE)Shijingand phonological components of Chinese characters.Reconstructions of Old Chinesehave illuminated the etymology of modern Chinese words.
Various people have offered different explanations for the nameTaijiquan. Some have said: In terms ofself-cultivation, one must train from a state of movement towards a state of stillness.Taijicomes about through the balance ofyinandyang. In terms of the art of attack and defense then, in the context of thechangesof full and empty, one is constantly internally latent, to not outwardly expressive, as if theyinandyangofTaijihave not yet divided apart. Others say: Every movement ofTaijiquanis based on circles, just like the shape of aTaijitu. Therefore, it is calledTaijiquan.
For the earliest recorded yin and yang usages, theOEDcites 1671 foryinandyang,1850 foryin-yang,and 1959 foryang-yin.
Englishyin,yang, andyin-yangare familiarloanwordsofChinese origin.
, University of Hawaii Press, 2003, 1147, 1108.
Theandforynandyngcombine the same hill radical with the non-phoneticyumoon andrsun, graphically denoting shady side of a hill and sunny side of a hill. Compare theClassical Chinesenames (which containtigreat) for these two heavenly bodies:Tiynmoon andTiyngsun.
Rolf Steins Tibetica Antiqua: With Additional Materials
Late Roman Shield Patterns – Magister Peditum.
Carl Jung, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self, in
Certain catchphrases have been used to express yin and yang complementarity:
The principle of yin and yang is represented in Taoism by the Taijitu (literally Diagram of theSupreme Ultimate). The term is commonly used to mean the simple divided circle form, but may refer to any of several schematic diagrams representing these principles, such as theswastika, common to Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Similar symbols have also appeared in other cultures, such as inCeltic artandRoman shield markings.
Yin is the black side with the white dot in it, and yang is the white side with the black dot in it. The relationship between yin and yang is often described in terms of sunlight playing over a mountain and a valley. Yin (literally the shady place or north slope) is the dark area occluded by the mountains bulk, while yang (literally the sunny place or south slope) is the brightly lit portion. As the sun moves across the sky, yin and yang gradually trade places with each other, revealing what was obscured and obscuring what was revealed.
Zh: Intention or will; Wisdom or cleverness
Schuessler gives probableSino-Tibetanetymologies for both Chinese words.
Li, Fang-Kuei, Studies on Archaic Chinese, translated by Gilbert L. Mattos,
inseal script(top), Traditional (middle), and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese
For information about (and other uses of) the symbol
InTaoistmetaphysics, distinctions between good and bad, along with other dichotomous moral judgments, are perceptual, not real; so, the duality of yin and yang is an indivisible whole. In the ethics ofConfucianismon the other hand, most notably in the philosophy ofDong Zhongshu(c.2nd century BC), a moral dimension is attached to the idea of yin and yang.
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TheOxford English Dictionarydefines:
Yin and yang also applies to the human body. In traditional Chinese medicine good health is directly related to the balance between yin and yang qualities within oneself.If yin and yang become unbalanced, one of the qualities is considered deficient or hasvacuity.
The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine
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Osgood, Charles E. From Yang and Yin to and or but. Language 49.2 (1973): 380412 .JSTOR
Nyoiti SakurazawaWilliam Dufty(1965)
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Yin or Noun [philosophy] negative/passive/female principle in nature SurnameBound morpheme the moon shaded orientation covert; concealed; hidden negative north side of a hill south bank of a river reverse side of a stele ⑪in intaglioStative verb overcast sinister; treacherous
Theetymologically translates Chineseyin shady side (of a mountain) andyang sunny side (of a mountain) with the uncommon English geographic termsubacshady side of a mountain andadretsunny side of a mountain (which are ofFrench origin).…
yang(jæŋ) AlsoYang. [Chineseyngyang, sun, positive, male genitals.]
Yinandyangare semantically complex words.
Yin *ʔəmcompares withBurmeseʔumCovercast; cloudy,Adimuk-jumshade, andLepchasoymshade; and is probably cognate with Chinesen *ʔə̂mʔdim; gloomy andqn *khəmblanket
Ying Yang redirects here. For Chinese people surnamed Yang, seeYang Ying.
Theandfor the wordsynandyngare both classified asradical- esphonetic characters, combining the semantically significantorwith the phonetic indicatorsyingandyang. The first phoneticyncloudy ideographically combinesjnnow; present andyncloud, denoting the presence of clouds.The second phoneticyngbright originally picturedthe sun withrays coming down.This phonetic is expanded with thesun radicalintoyng rising sun; sunshine. The mound; hill radical full forms semantically specifyyn shady/dark side of a hill andyng sunny/light side of a hill.
, tr. by J. Ogilby, 1671, 549: The Chineses by these Strokes declare how much each Form or Sign receives from the two fore-mentiond Beginnings of Yn or Yang.
, Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1957, 173, 188.
Giovanni Monastra:2011-09-25 at theWayback Machine., Sophia, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2000)
ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese
Yin Yang meaning in Chineseeducational video.
Needham discusses Yin and Yang together withFive Elementsas part of theSchool of Naturalists. He says that it would be proper to begin with Yin and Yang before Five Elements because the former: lay, as it were, at a deeper level in Nature, and were the most ultimate principles of which the ancient Chinese could conceive. But it so happens that we know a good deal more about the historical origin of the Five-Element theory than about that of the Yin and the Yang, and it will therefore be more convenient to deal with it first.He then discussesZou Yan(; 305 240 BC) who is most associated with these theories. Although Yin and Yang are not mentioned in any of the surviving documents of Zou Yan, his school was known as the Yin Yang Jia (Yin and Yang School) Needham concludes There can be very little doubt that the philosophical use of the terms began about the beginning of the -4th century, and that the passages in older texts which mention this use are interpolations made later than that time.
Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (2014).
Yang, by contrast, is fast, hard, solid, focused, hot, dry, and active; and is associated with fire, sky, the sun,masculinityand daytime.
, ed. by Antonio S. Cua, Routledge, 2002, 847.
. Oxford: Oxford University Press.ISBN978-0-19-994537-5.
a.In Chinese philosophy, the masculine or positive principle (characterized by light, warmth, dryness, activity, etc.) of the two opposing cosmic forces into which creative energy divides and whose fusion in physical matter brings the phenomenal world into being. Alsoattrib.or asadj.Cf.yin.
yin(jɪn) AlsoYin,Yn. [Chineseynshade, feminine; the moon.]
Needham, Joseph; Science and Civilization in China Vol.2: History of Scientific Thought; Cambridge University Press; 1956
. Moreover, it does not damage monotheism in any way, since it unites the opposites just and yang and yin are united in Tao (which the Jesuits quite logically translated as God).
Yin yang redirects here. For other uses, seeYin yang (disambiguation).
Taijiquan (Chinese: ), a form of martial art, is often described as the principles of yin and yang applied to the human body and an animal body.Wu Jianquan, a famousChinese martial artsteacher, described Taijiquan as follows:
William Jones Boone, Defense of an Essay on the proper renderings of the words Elohim and ός into the Chinese Language,
It is impossible to talk about yin or yang without some reference to the opposite, since yin and yang are bound together as parts of amutual whole(for example, there cannot be the bottom of the foot without the top). A way to illustrate this idea isto postulate the notion of a race with only men or only women; this race would disappear in a single generation. Yet, men and women together create new generations that allow the race they mutually create (and mutually come from) to survive. The interaction of the two gives birth to things, like manhood.Yin and yang transform each other: like an undertow in the ocean, every advance is complemented by a retreat, and every rise transforms into a fall. Thus, a seed will sprout from the earth and grow upwards towards the skyan intrinsically yang movement. Then, when it reaches its full potential height, it will fall. Also, the growth of the top seeks light, while roots grow in darkness.
In theI Ching, originally a divination manual of theWestern Zhouperiod (c. 1000750 BC),yin and yang are represented by broken and solid lines: yin is broken (⚋) and yang is solid (⚊). These are then combined intotrigrams, which are more yang (e.g.☱) or more yin (e.g.☵) depending on the number of broken and solid lines (e.g., ☰ is heavily yang, while ☷ is heavily yin), and trigrams are combined into hexagrams (e.g.䷕and䷟). The relative positions and numbers of yin and yang lines within the trigrams determines the meaning of a trigram, and in hexagrams the upper trigram is considered yang with respect to the lower trigram, yin, which allows for complex depictions of interrelations.
Yangrefers to the south side of a hill inHengyang, which is south ofMount Heng inHunanprovince, and to the north bank of a river inLuoyang, which is located north of theLuo River inHenan.
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Needham, Joseph; Science and Civilization in China Vol.2: History of Scientific Thought; Cambridge University Press; 1956.
, tr. by R. F. C. Hull, Volume 9, Part 2, p. 58 [The vision of Ascension of Isaiah] might easily be a description of a genuine yang-yin relationship, a picture that comes closer to the actual truth than the
. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p.869.ISBN978-0-8239-4079-0.
The Yin-Yang symbol, having no officially standardized rendition, has been the basis of much artistic variation, most of it frivolous (that is, merely artistic, with no philosophical/mystical meaning, e.g., tattoos).
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Li CL. A brief outline of Chinese medical history with particular reference to acupuncture. Perspect Biol Med. 1974 Autumn;18(1):132-43.
Woolidge, Doug (June 1997). TAI CHI The International Magazine of Tai Chi Chuan Vol. 21 No. 3. Wayfarer Publications.ISSN0730-1049.
Yang *laŋcompares with Lepchaa-lŋreflecting light, BurmeselaŋBbe bright andə-laŋBlight, andTaiplaŋA1bright; and is perhaps cognate with Chinesechng *k-hlaŋprosperous; bright (cf. Proto-Viet-MonghlaŋBbright), andbng *braŋʔbright.
Compare these Middle Chinese and Old Chinese (with asterisk) reconstructions ofyn andyng: